Xerox, in full Xerox Corporation, major American corporation that was a pioneer in office technology, notably being the first to manufacture xerographic plain-paper copiers. Headquarters are in Norwalk, Connecticut.
The company was founded in 1906 as the Haloid Company, a manufacturer and distributor of photographic paper. In 1947 the firm obtained the commercial rights to xerography, an imaging process invented by Chester Carlson (see also electrophotography). Renamed the Haloid Xerox Company in 1958, the company introduced the 914 xerographic copier in 1959. The process, which made photographic copies onto plain, uncoated paper, had been known for some time, but this was its first commercial application. The product brought so much success and name recognition that the company has waged a continuing campaign to prevent the trademark Xerox from becoming a generic term. The company changed its name to Xerox Corporation in 1961.